Python: charmap codec can’t encode character in position character maps to

I was trying to print a list of top 10,000 rows using following. I used PTVS – Python tools for Visual Studio. with open(“myawesomefile’) as f: reader = csv.reader(f) your_list = list(reader) print(your_list) I was getting the error. when i did the following instead it worked. Most likely the command line doesnt want to print […]

Immutability of Data in Big Data Systems

Have¬†you ever wondered why the Big Data systems, typically batch systems (Hadoop/Hbase, COSMOS store, Google BigTable) that allow Map-Reduce on them have immutability of the data store? Fault-tolerance and resilience: If the data is prone to human error, it is better to write data as is. Once you write data as is, you don’t have […]

The Memory Hierarchy

Thanks to Chris Terman and MIT open courseware. These notes are from an MIT lecture found here Timeline: 0:20 What we want in a memory. 2:25 Technologies for memories. (see table) 5:30 SRAM Memory Cell 10:23 1-T Dynamic RAM 16:00 Hard disk 17:40 Challenge to cope with Quality vs. Quantity 18:15 Key idea: Best of […]


Both MVP and MVVM are derivatives of MVC (see timelines and how these have evolved). The key difference between them is the dependency each layer has on other layers as well as how tightly bound they are to each other. See diagram and the references column for more details. These patterns try to address mainly […]